India is going to launch its new Rs 200 Rupees Banknote, After the Demonetization this will be something New for India.

This is the fourth new note to be announced since November, when Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced an overnight ban on Rs. 1,000 and Rs. 500 notes to choke tax evaders. The government says the Rs. 200 notes will inject more low denomination currency in the system.

Here are the features of the New ₹200 Notes

1. See through register with denominational numeral 200,
2. Latent image with denominational numeral 200,
3. Denominational numeral २०० in Devnagari,
4. Portrait of Mahatma Gandhi at the centre,
5. Micro letters ‘RBI’, ‘भारत’, ‘India’ and ‘200’,
6. Windowed security thread with inscriptions ‘भारत’ and RBI with colour shift. Colour of the thread changes from green to blue when the note is tilted,
7. Guarantee Clause, Governor’s signature with Promise Clause and RBI emblem towards right of Mahatma Gandhi portrait,
8. Denominational numeral with Rupee Symbol, ₹ 200 in colour changing ink (green to blue) on bottom right,
9. Ashoka Pillar emblem on the right,
10. Mahatma Gandhi portrait and electrotype (200) watermarks,
11. Number panel with numerals growing from small to big on the top left side and bottom right side,
12. For visually impaired
Intaglio or raised printing of Mahatma Gandhi portrait, Ashoka Pillar emblem, raised Identification mark H with micro-text ₹ 200, four angular bleed lines with two circles in between the lines both on the right and left sides
India New 200 Rupees Banknote

India New 200 Rupees Banknote

For those living under the Carthaginian Empire, the defeat of general Hannibal would have been unmistakable.

But its effect on the Roman Empire can be detected even today, historians have said, as they analyse the composition of ancient coins.

A study of coins has illustrated that the defeat of Hannibal led to a flood of wealth across the Roman Empire from the silver mines of Spain, giving a “tangible record” of the transition of Rome from a regional power to an Empire.

The Second Punic War, when Hannibal famously marched his elephants across the Alps from Carthage in a failed attack on Rome, is regarded as one of the pivotal events in the history of Europe.

The war led to the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, with the Romans gradually gaining control over the lucrative Spanish silver mines from around 211BC.

Roman coins show evidence of Hannibal's defeat

Roman coins show evidence of Hannibal’s defeat

Revenues from the rich Spanish silver mines coupled with booty and extensive war reparations from Carthage, helped fund the expansion of its territory.

Now the application of geochemical analysis techniques has provided proof of the importance of the Spanish silver to the Roman conquest.

Scientists based in Germany and Denmark analysed 70 Roman coins dating from 310-300BC to 101 BC, a period which bracketed the Second Punic War.

Using Mass Spectrometry, they were able to show that lead in the coins made after 209BC has distinctive isotopic signatures which identified most of the later coins as presumably originating from Spanish sources.

The changing origin of the coin bullion is mirrored by differing ratios of the lead isotopes 208Pb, 207Pb, 206Pb and 204Pb, which serve as ‘geological clocks’ recording the formation age of the ores used to extract the silver.

After 209BC, the lead isotope signatures mostly correspond to those of deposits in southeast and southwest Spain or to mixtures of metal extracted from these districts.

Study co-leader Dr Katrin Westner, of Goethe University in Frankfurt, Gemrany, said: “Before the war we find that the Roman coins are made of silver from the same sources as the coinage issued by Greek cities in Italy and Sicily.

“In other words the lead isotope signatures of the coins correspond to those of silver ores and metallurgical products from the Aegean region.

“But the defeat of Carthage led to huge reparation payments to Rome, as well as Rome gaining high amounts of booty and ownership of the rich Spanish silver mines.

Roman coins show evidence of Hannibal's defeat

Roman coins show evidence of Hannibal’s defeat

“From 209BC we see that the majority of Roman coins show geochemical signatures typical for Iberian silver.

“This massive influx of Iberian silver significantly changed Rome’s economy, allowing it to become the superpower of its day.

“We know this from the histories of Livy and Polybius and others, but our work gives contemporary scientific proof of the rise of Rome.

“What our work shows is that the defeat of Hannibal and the rise of Rome is written in the coins of the Roman Empire.”

Professor Kevin Butcher, of the Department of Classics and Ancient History at Warwick University, said: “This research demonstrates how scientific analysis of ancient coins can make a significant contribution to historical research.

“It allows what was previously speculation about the importance of Spanish silver for the coinage of Rome to be placed on a firm foundation.”

The findings were presented at the Goldschmidt geochemistry conference in Paris.

Post credits :

The Reserve Bank of Vanuatu (RBV) has issued its new 5,000-vatu note. This is the first of two new notes this year. At the end of this year we will also get a new 500-vatu note. These are the last two notes from the new polymer series of which the first notes were issued in 2014.

The front of the note shows the Vanuatu emblem. The back of this beautiful new note shows some children on a boat, swimming and a fish.

Vanuatu new 5000 Vatu Polymer banknote

Vanuatu new 5000 Vatu Polymer banknote

Vanuatu new 5000 Vatu Polymer banknote

Central bank of Swaziland has started printing a green 10 lilangeni Banknote , this is to reduce confusion between blue 10 lilangeni Banknote  and South Africa’s blue 100-rand note.

Because the current 200 lilangeni note is also green, that denomination will be redesigned to avoid confusion with this new note. The 100-lilangeni is also expected to be redesigned for unspecified reasons. These larger denominations are scheduled for introduction on 1 January 2018.

new 10 lilangeni Banknote

The government and treasury of the Falkland Islands have issued (24th July) their latest coin in their hugely popular series of four coins highlighting the wonderful world of penguins—a species of bird found in significant numbers in the South Atlantic.

The coin, which is the third in the series, features the king penguin, a very large species of penguin and second only to the emperor penguin in size. These extraordinary flightless birds reach a height of about 100 centimeters and weigh up to 18 kilograms. They sustain themselves on a diet of small fish and squid, which they can dive to incredible depths of over 100 meters to catch.

The plumage of the king penguin is similar to that of the emperor penguin, with a contrasting vivid yellow/orange patch at the top of the chest. The king penguin has this same orange on its cheek patches, which are much lighter than those on the emperor. The king penguin is found on sub-Antarctic islands such as the Falkland Islands.

Falkland Islands issues four colorful coins featuring King penguins

Falkland Islands issues four colorful coins featuring King penguins

The Falklands actually refer to themselves as the “penguin capital of the world,” as more than 1 million penguins nest on the Islands, together with the overall population, which—currently at 2.2 million—is actually increasing. Similarly to other penguins, the king has two groups of predators: those who eat their eggs, such as petrels and skuas, and those who hunt adult penguins, such as the leopard seal and the orca.

King penguins typically start to reproduce at the age of about six, and they are serially monogamous, which means that each year they will have one partner that they will stay faithful to.

Falkland Islands issues four colorful coins featuring King penguins

This coin is enclosed in a capsule inside a blue protective branded pouch. A collector’s album for the set of coloured penguins—illustrated with the penguins around a bait ball—is also available and is sold separately. The album also gives important facts and information about the individual penguins.

Delivery commenced from the 1st August; the website also has a notice that orders placed between the 28th July and the 10th August will be shipped from the 11th August, as the office is closed while staff attend the ANA World’s Fair of Money in Denver, Colorado.

The remaining coin in the series is scheduled to be released in October and will feature the magellanic penguin. For additional information on this and other coins issued by the government and treasury of the Falkland Islands, please visit the website of the Pobjoy Mint.


source :

Images: Pobjoy Mint